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Germany

09.12.2015
- Languages: it
A few years ago, British historian Tony Judt identified two main phases in the evolution of European memory after the Second World War: the first took shape in 1945, the second after 1989. This picture entirely eclipses an aspect which is of great historical significance: the presence everywhere in Europe of collaborationist forces that actively supported Nazism, and the fact that serious war crimes were committed by all parties involved in the conflict, including the winners.
13.11.2015
- Languages: it
The very nature of the challenge of the European project requires that we overcome this gradualism that appears to have no clear strategy. The difficulties we must overcome are of gigantic proportions. But, alongside the powerful forces of disintegration, important forces are also at work in a central core of countries committed to moving forward.
11.11.2015
- Languages: it
Listing all the difficulties that we need to confront in Europe is one thing, arguing that the EU or the Eurozone have been unable or will be unable to find adequate responses is another thing. It seems that the Jan Zielonka underestimates the fact that institutional equilibria evolve over time in response to events, and that new balances emerge as a result of the pressure of events.
09.11.2015
- Languages: de
Everyone knows that the international flood of refugees and migrants cannot be stopped by borders. The worsening situation in Hungary and the terrible pictures of refugees herded into trains led Germany and Austria to open their borders on a temporary basis; now some decisions have to be made regarding the inadequacy of border controls in seeking to manage the movements of refugees.
27.10.2015

If it is true that cultural consumptions tell a lot about people, then here is what six European countries have been and are reading in September and October 2015 (fiction only).

12.10.2015
- Languages: it
Without greater solidarity, Europe will be unable to face – united – the challenges of globalisation, from the economic crises to the management of migration flows. The search for the correct balance between providing adequate support to those in need and avoiding moral hazard represents the most complex point of the European political debate.
23.09.2015
- Languages: de
State borders differ from earlier forms of territorial demarcation by the way that the state claims the right to develop in its own way, independently of all external actors. Beyond any one state's borders there are either ‘open’ areas that belong to no one state – lakes, seas and oceans – or other territories. Logically, all borders are dual boundaries, because another state is on the other side.
21.09.2015
- Languages: it
A reading of the Greek crisis grounded in an acceptance of the dichotomy between austerity and growth ignores the real problems of Greece and the long-term objectives upon which the process of European integration is founded, namely the effort to generate acceptable levels of economic convergence through the improvement of member countries’ institutions.
16.09.2015
- Languages: de
Throughout Europe memory of interstate borders has faded as a direct result of European development, which can be summed up in three related elements: the progressive abolition of internal EU borders; the reinforcement of the boundary between the EU and the rest of the world and the dynamic created by the extension of the EU to new member states, which furthered a sense of the mobility of territorial boundaries.
07.09.2015
- Languages: it
Obviously there is no doubt as to the importance and necessity of continuing to cope with the ‘past that must not pass’ of German history. Or the importance of not giving in to the deceitful lure of ‘historical revisionism’. But instrumentalising the memory of German politics’ past tragedies for ideological reasons – a memory rooted in the consciousness of Europe – is another matter entirely