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- Languages: it
A few years ago, British historian Tony Judt identified two main phases in the evolution of European memory after the Second World War: the first took shape in 1945, the second after 1989. This picture entirely eclipses an aspect which is of great historical significance: the presence everywhere in Europe of collaborationist forces that actively supported Nazism, and the fact that serious war crimes were committed by all parties involved in the conflict, including the winners.
‘Europe’ is a vague and ill-defined construction, invented by geographers and historians in Antiquity to divide the known world into three parts (Asia, Africa, Europe) as geographical labels on maps. Since then definitions of Europe have continually changed, and further continents have been added to the European view of the world.
- Languages: de
Throughout Europe memory of interstate borders has faded as a direct result of European development, which can be summed up in three related elements: the progressive abolition of internal EU borders; the reinforcement of the boundary between the EU and the rest of the world and the dynamic created by the extension of the EU to new member states, which furthered a sense of the mobility of territorial boundaries.
The Atlantic Wall’s fight today is no longer against the Allies, but against nature. From World War to Cold War to global warming. Bunkers have had a lot to endure in recent years. Dunes disappear under them, at times reducing them to breakwaters.
In European history, borders have had an importance unknown to other civilisations. Whereas in the Islamic, Indian and Chinese worlds the norm has been that of a formal or informal Empire that controlled the whole region, in the Old Continent, since at least the XV Century, the norm has been a more anarchic and pluralistic situation, in which various greater and lesser powers coexisted with one another.
Sometimes there are events that can be seen as possible way marks towards this final stage of history: events that only reveal their importance over time and maybe even seemed quite small at the point of their occurrence. When the Magna Carta Libertatum was signed on June 15, 1215 such a way mark was set in history.
Origin and exile, or Mount Ararat and the island of San Lazzaro in the Venice Biennale: it is not possible to think of 2015 without considering 1915, like it is not possible to think of the Armenian Diaspora without considering the area from which it emanated. The Armenity asserts itself on the periphery of Europe, at the Venice Biennale it steps into the center.
If it is a truism that languages tend to become less complex as they get older, why then have the complex systems of gender survived with such tenacity? What investment could human beings possibly have in sexing the world through language?
- Languages: fr

The idea to create a Museum of Europe in Brussels was born from a triple assessment: Europe exists; its citizens do not know much about it and, what is worse, do not want to know anything; and, since nothing is done without the citizens’ approval in a democracy, it is important to develop a pedagogy for Europe. A history museum is an excellent tool to do this, among others.

- Languages: it
For about twenty years, starting from 1494, Manutius played a key role in the communication and technological revolution that dominated the Renaissance and had a lasting and profound effect on Europe, even to this day. He transformed the printed book into the most effective tool for the accumulation and dissemination of human knowledge of the last five centuries.