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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Thatcher was a major political figure of the end of the Cold War era, who is still surrounded by much controversy today. There are two main reasons for this: she openly pursued an alternative vision of Europe at a time when federalism was still the dominant discourse; and she called for the liberalisation of the Eastern bloc, rather than its disintegration.
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“Brexit” is no longer a fantasy. While a clear majority of the British people remain in favour of continued membership of the EU, their support is ultimately fickle. Nevertheless, if one wants to understand what British Euroscepticism is about, one cannot but begin with Enoch Powell. Contemporary Euroscepticism in a sense vindicates the ideas and positions taken by this extraordinary intellectual.

Britain has always been, and probably still is, the most consistently ‘Eurosceptic’ country in the EU. Many intelligent commentators outside Britain seem unable to understand this position, often dismissing it as merely the consequence of ignorance or a biased press. The EU, to put it mildly, is not a system in which popular power prevails, and many people in Britain are instinctively suspicious of a political Europe as an affront to national democracy.


The birth of neoliberalism is difficult to date precisely. As an intellectual project it emerged in the 1930s and 1940s in various initially unrelated institutional contexts from the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg to the Economics Department at the University of Chicago.